On Farm Trials [OFT]

"Testing of any improved technology along with the farmers practice in the farmer’s field with active participation of both the scientists and farmers is known as OFT. In this method two to three improved varieties or two to three improved technologies are tested in the same field so as to compare the results of these treatments. As per the suggestions of the farmers as well as local soil and climatic conditions the improved technology may slightly be modified by the scientists of K.V.K. to get maximum return."

Result of On - Farm Trials

Results obtained from the trials conducted during the period of 1994 to 2015 is stated as under.

  1. Under medium low land situation, higher production was obtained from Sarju-52 (51.17q/ha) followed by NDR-80 (47.87q/ha) over existing varieties of the farmers.
  2. Balanced dose of fertilizers (N-120, P-60, K-60) with HYV of paddy (Sarju-52) gave highest yield (52.1 q/ha) than existing dose of fertilizers (N-120, P-60) used by the farmers (39.6 q/ha).
  3. An application of butachlor in transplanted rice field of Sarju-52 gave highest yield (40.35 q/ha) in comparison to weeding ((18.84 q/ha)
  4. Row cropping of mustard in wheat variety HD-2285(9:1) proved to be better and produces 30.4 q grain per ha. against the yield of wheat (18.10q/ha) grown with broadcasting method of mustard under same situation.
  5. The growing of dhaincha as a green manure in paddy- wheat crop rotation may help an increase in yield of rice (51.56 q/ha) and wheat (46.8 q/ha) by reducing 25% dose of nitrogen per ha. in both the crops where as yield of paddy and wheat.
  6. The farmers are impressed with the yield potential of improved hybrid varieties of different vegetable crops i.e. tomato (Apoorva ) 315 q/ha, bittergourd (Baramasi) 118 -178 q/ha and okra 265 q/ha with net return of Rs. 12,925 from tomato, Rs. 3,450 from bittergourd and 5,225 from okra per hectare respectively over traditional varieties grown by the farmers.
  7. Replacement of DAP by Urea and SSP gave higher yield of wheat grain (31.87 q/ha) followed by elemental sulphur (31.36 q/ha).Farmers practice without sulphur (29.6q/ha). Whereas crops grown by the farmers with DAP and Urea give 29.6 q/ha.
  8. Planting of tomato on raised bed increases plant density up to 20% against flat bed planting. Low infestation of weed and fruit end rot increases the yield of fruit (380 q/ha) whereas flatbed planting practiced by the farmers gave fruit yeld of 276 q/ha. up to 17.27% over flatbed planting.
  9. Application of vermi compost @ of 3 t /ha above alone with 60 kgn/ha of top dressing and NPK (65:30:17/ha) along with 1.5 t vermi compost as well as farmer practice gave more or less similar un-husk rice (33-35q/ha) in first year whereas, similar trend have been obtained in wheat also. During second year in same plot increasing trend in yield of grain and number of tillers were obtained higher against NPK (Farmers practice). During 3rd year vermi compost @ 3 t/ha. along with 60 kgN/ha gave 52.8 q/ha followed by NPK 60:30:17 plus 1.5 t/ha vermi compost gave 50.5 q unhusked rice whereas farmer practice (NPK 120:60:35) 50 q/ha gave 47.0 q/ha .
  10. Application of 20 kg S /ha along with N-92 kg/ha and P- 25 kg/ha gave the maximum yield 49.5 q/ha against the fertilizers applied by farmers (N-92kg and p2 O5 25 kg/ha) 41.0 q/ha. Similar trend have been observed in wheat also. Application of NP and S @ of 94 kg,55 kg and 20 kg /ha gave higher yield of grain (38 q/ha) against farmers practice (NP @94 and 25 kg/ha) produces 25 q/ha.
  11. Yield of brinjal fruits was recorded 219.18 q/ha treating the seedlings with 0.2 % Blitox to control root rot and collar rot whereas farmers practice (without treatment) 156.78 q/ha.
  12. Gummosis and die back was controlled upto 80 -89 % with application of copper, zinc and boran @ of 25 gram per tree per year multiple with the age of the tree.
  13. Feeding of milch animals with 30 gm mineral mixture plus rice bran 500g and salt 50g per day minimizes calving interval and increase the milk yield up to 25 to 50%.
  14. Application of S @ of 20 kg/ha along with NP@ 60 & 40 kg/ha in rabi onion gave higher yield of bulb (188q/ha) than the application of NP alone by the farmers (1.68.5 q/ha).
  15. Under rice- wheat crop rotation use of mid duration variety of rice and field pea gave maximum return/ha (Rs.-77600) against rice –wheat(Rs.34140/ha).
  16. Productivity and profitability in rice –wheat crop rotation paddy grown in aerobic condition followed by wheat gave an yield of 68q/ha unhusked rice and 56q/ha wheat grain with net income of Rs.79600/ha whereas non aerobic condition (rice-78q and wheat -48q with Rs. 75800/ha).
  17. Vegetable pea variety Kashi Uday gave maximum yield of green pod (68q/ha) followed by Azad-P3 (55.60q/ha).
  18. Planting of Banana (Var-G9 ) in June up to 15th of July gave higher weight of bunch and yield of 675 q/ha with higher sale rate(Rs. 830/q) against the crop planted during August onward 580 q/ha with lower rate of Rs. 565.00 /q.
  19. Application of Potash @50 kg/ha minimizes the bolting percentage upto 1.1, where as the maximum bolting percentage was observed (6.6 % ) in the crop grown without k.

Demonstration - LLP & FLD

Lab to Land Program (LLP) and Front Line Demonstration (FLD) is the field demonstration conducted under the close supervision of the scientists because the technologies are demonstrated for the first time by the scientist themselves before being fed into the main extension system of the state department of Agriculture in that particular area. In this method newly released crop production and protection technologies and its management practices were adopted in a block of two to four hectares on the farmers field. Only critical inputs and training for these demonstrations were provided by Krishi Vigyan Kendra.

In LLP & FLD both farmers and extension functionaries are targeted audience. From the LLP & FLD, it is possible to generate some data related to factors contributing to higher yield and also constraints of production under various farming situations. LLP & Front Line Demonstrations were conducted in a particular area after thorough discussion and consultation with the farmers of that locality.

Depending upon the requirement of that area highly efficient new proven technology with higher potentialities is selected for this programme. Generally a field day is observed on the demonstration field when the crops were at maturity stage and interaction between the scientists, farmers and extension functionaries takes place in the field. The crop were harvested in the presence of the interested group of farmers so that they can visualize-the importance of new technology easily and effectively."

Lab to Land Programme :

The Kendra was involved in implementation of “Lab to Land programme” right from its inception. The centre has very well integrated this programme with other rural development programmes and TOT programmes of ICAR. The KVK has adopted multidisciplinary approach by introducing the proven and viable technologies related to crop production, vegetable and fruit production, fish cultivation, use of improved agricultural implements with a major thrust to improve the family income and to generate additional employment in the adopted villages in general and identifies families in particular.

During the period of 1979 to 1996, a total number of 2,802 families belonging to small and marginal farmers and landless families of 55 villages have been adopted to improve their socio-economic condition through improvement of agricultural production, soil condition and diversification into other allied activities like dairy, poultry, goat keeping , fish culture etc. for generating extra employment of income of the families. Out of the total, 369 families belongs to scheduled caste and 208 families belongs to landless category. In the demonstration priority was given to crop production (2259 families) followed by animal husbandry including milch animals, poultry and goat keeping (33 families), horticulture including vegetable crops (33 families), fish rearing (33 families) and usar reclamation (50 families). Under crop production, paddy was the priority crop followed by wheat among the small and marginal farmers, while milch animals and goat keeping for marginal and landless families under animal husbandry programme. In vegetable production potato, tomato, okra, brinjal, cauliflower, onion, cucurbits etc. were taken as major crops. Under fish cultivation, composite fish culture including Indian major carps like rohu, catla and Nain along with exotic carps were demonstrated during the period. From the observation it has been, it has been found that there was an increase in paddy production from 21.7% to 91.01%, wheat 38% to 88%, potato 30% -34% gram 70%-85%, mustard -35%-40% and moong/urd 40%-65% by adopting HYV of crops and vegetables, use of preventive and protective measures of plant protection, timely sowing/planting , seed treatment and use of optimum dose of fertilizers etc. Priority was also given to adopt intensive farming approach through change in cropping pattern and increase in cropping intensity as per needs and available resources of the families . Goat keeping was promoted with landless families, whereas, women were motivated for backyard poultry, goat keeping and dairy. With the adoption of intensive and integrated approach, additional employment was also generated from 27.77% to 51.75% per year. These production oriented and income generating activities were supported by practical training, follow-up visits, organization of field days and exhibition, publication of magazine, leaflets, pamphlets, etc. For dissemination of latest technologies and indentify the issues related to non adoption of technologies for further improvement.

The programme was evaluated by FAO/ICAR consultancy mission on KVK in February 1987.The mission team consisting 6 members viz. M.L. Dewan, Chief FAO Asian Regional Bureau & Member, National Land use & Conservation Board, GOI, T .N. Saraf I.A.S. UN FAO Representative at The United Nations, N.Y., G.S. Bawaeja Joint Commissioner (Agril.Ext.), GOI,FAO/UN,Laos, L.M. Jaswani A.D.G. (ICAR), Food and Forage , D.K. Mishra Ex. Director, Extension Rajasthan Agril. University, Adviser(Training), F.A.O. - Bangladesh, B.N.Choudhary Senior Scientist (Agril. Ext.), ICAR.

The mission has appreciated the work done by the KVK and its operative linkage with several department/ institutions/ organizations who had supported the KVK for its infrastructure development which has benefited the trainees and beneficiaries. They had also appreciated the services rendered by the KVK in the form of training and technical guidance for the effective implementation of progressive farmers.

Lab to Land Programme 1979-1992

Performance of Crop

Crop Var. Demo No. of farmers Average Productivity Av. % increase
Paddy Saket-4, S-52, NDR-80 3391 Check q/ha : 25.20
Demo q/ha : 43.24
Wheat UP-262, K-7410, HD-2285, HUW-206, HP-1209 3339 Check q/ha : 23.05
Demo q/ha : 39.80
Field Pea Rachna 936 Check q/ha : 6.85
Demo q/ha : 10.80
Chick Pea Radhey, C-235, K-850, H-208 874 Check q/ha : 5.75
Demo q/ha : 9.40
Pigeon Pea NA-1, Bahar , Sharad, Malviya-13 85 Check q/ha : 8.0
Demo q/ha : 14.0
Moongbean Pant M-2, Pant M-3, NDR M-1, Pant M-4 166 Check q/ha : 3.18
Demo q/ha : 6.33
Urdbean Azad-1, Pant U-35, NU-1 142 Check q/ha : 2.84
Demo q/ha : 5.37
Mustard T-59, Pusha gold, Kranti, NDR-8507 1774 Check q/ha : 6.60
Demo q/ha : 12.24
Tomato HS-101, 102, Mankaker, Punjab chhuhara-1 146 Check q/ha : 136.0
Demo q/ha : 239.20
Cauliflower Dipali, Snowball-16 225 Check q/ha : 124.8
Demo q/ha : 201.05
Brinjal PH-4, Pusha, Kranti, Neelam 55 Check q/ha : 217.78
Demo q/ha : 273.50
Cabbage Golden Acre, Pride of India 15 Check q/ha : 86.04
Demo q/ha : 205.5
Chilli Pant C-1, Suryamukhi 86 Check q/ha : 77.80
Demo q/ha : 112.5
Onion Pusa Red, Pusa Ratnar 90 Check q/ha : 113.5
Demo q/ha : 208.8

Live Stock

Enterprise Family No. Breed/Species
Goat Keeping 33 Barbari (Stall fed ) /Buck for breeding
Poultry 15 Backyard / Poultry – WLH
Fisheries 47 Indian & Exotic carps

Training for LLP Beneficiaries

Client Duration Subject No. of course No. of Participant
Farmers & Farm women 1-3 days Crop & Vegetable 740 7164
Farmers & Farm women 1 week Fish production 70 2304
Farmers & Farm women 2 week Milk production, Goat keeping & Poultry 30 534

Extension Activities Under LLP:

Activitie : Field days – 48 , Exhibition – 11, Radio/Film show – 10

Front Line Block Demonstration (Oil Seeds & Pulse Crops) :

The KVK has got responsibility of front line block demonstration on oil and pulse crops in the district Sultanpur (Eastern plain Zone) with effect from Rabi 1990-91 The demonstrations have been conducted in blocks having an area of 2.5 to 5.0 ha at different locations by providing critical inputs supported by other extension activities like motivation, frequent visits during crop season, organizing field days etc.

  • Cultivation of oil and pulse crops in the district were mainly confined to traditional varieties of the crops and non-input age-old agricultural practices with very low yield.
  • The main objective of the demonstration was to promptly demonstrate the latest technologies on the farmers field, so that, the farmers of the area could get motivated and gain confidence about the demonstrated technologies.
  • The failure or non-adoption of technologies may also be identifies as first hand feedback for future research and policy considerations for improvement in the productivity of the crops.

  • Pulse Crop :

    Among the pulse crops, pigeon pea is widely grown in kharif followed by urd / moong, whereas, in Rabi gram and filed peas coverage maximum area followed by lentil. In summer, urd / moong is the only pulse crop which has been cultivated by the farmers under assured irrigation condition.

    To improve the productivity of these crops, emphasis were given to introduce high yielding varieties(HYV), seed treatment, inoculation with rhyzobium culture, use of phosphatic fertilizers and their proper placement, furrow sowing, use of plant protection measures etc. The details of demonstration conducted and results obtained during the period 1990-91 ti 2014-15 is presented as under.

    Performance of Pulse Crop (1990-91 to 2014-15)

    Crop Thematic Area No. of Farmers Area (ha) Average Production Av. % Increase
    Lentil Varietal 225 79.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 15.39
    Check yield(q/ha) : 10.18
    INM 61 13.5 Demo yield(q/ha) : 16.95
    Check yield(q/ha) : 11.65
    Green Gram Varietal 14 10.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 9.22
    Check yield(q/ha) : 5.00
    INM 22 15.0 Demo yield(q/ha) : 9.44
    Check yield(q/ha) : 5.21
    Pigeon Pea Varietal 131 55.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 16.85
    Check yield(q/ha) : 9.02
    IPM 154 60.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 9.96
    Check yield(q/ha) : 9.47
    IDM 116 35.00 Demo yield(q/ha) :16.21
    Check yield(q/ha) : 11.70
    INM 188 72.50 Demo yield(q/ha) : 17.88
    Check yield(q/ha) : 11.99
    Chick Pea Varietal 262 105.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 20.21
    Check yield(q/ha) : 11.32
    IPM 92 27.50 Demo yield(q/ha) : 21.43
    Check yield(q/ha) : 11.47
    IDM 187 61.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 15.93
    Check yield(q/ha) : 11.01
    INM 65 12.50 Demo yield(q/ha) : 19.69br>Check yield(q/ha) : 14.05 41.83
    Urd Bean Varietal 100 60.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 7.12
    Check yield(q/ha) : 3.30
    IPM 121 55.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 7.99
    Check yield(q/ha) : 4.43
    INM 88/td> 31.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 11.77
    Check yield(q/ha) : 7.60
    Field Pea Varietal 140 50.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 16.42
    Check yield(q/ha) : 9.85
    IDM 58 20.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 16.47
    Check yield(q/ha) : 11.25
    INM 77 13.6 Demo yield(q/ha) : 19.88
    Check yield(q/ha) : 12.93

    Oil Seed Crop :

    Among the oil seed crops, mustard is the most significant crop in terms of area as well as production in the district. Next to mustard sesamum is grown in kharif alone or as intercrop with pegion pea and urd/moong. The groundnut crop is grown in a smaller area near by Sultnpur town, Though, sunflower crop is well known to the farmers but cultivation is not becoming popular in the district. Toria was introduced as catch crop to utilize the gap between kharif and Rabi crops. The mustard crop was mostly grown as intercrop with wheat,barley, gram, pea, and lentil, since long back to minimize the risk. Therefore, delayed sowing, use of local varieties, no use of fertilizers and plant protection measures were some of the reasons for low productivity. Therefore, priority was given for HYV, seed treatment, proper spacing, water management, use of micro nutrients, proper time of sowing and use of plant protection measures for improving crop productivity of the oilseed crops. The details of demonstration conducted and results obtained during the period 1990-91 to 2014-15 are summarized as under .

    Performance of Oil Seed Crops – (1990-91 To 2014-15)

    Crop Thematic Area No. of Farmers Area (ha) Average Production Av. % Increase
    Mustard Varietal 273 158.70 Demo yield(q/ha) : 27.89
    Check yield(q/ha) : 12.55
    IPM 185 69.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 16.82
    Check yield(q/ha) : 10.83
    IDM 310 132.40 Demo yield(q/ha) : 15.08
    Check yield(q/ha) : 9.58
    INM 127 39.0 Demo yield(q/ha) : 18.35
    Check yield(q/ha) : 11.66
    Sesamum Varietal 143 60.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 5.34
    Check yield(q/ha) : 2.86
    IDM 155 62.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 4.62
    Check yield(q/ha) : 2.83
    INM 79 22.50 Demo yield(q/ha) : 4.47
    Check yield(q/ha) :3.138
    Toria Varietal 93 36.55 Demo yield(q/ha) : 10.31
    Check yield(q/ha) : 5.39
    ICM 65 32.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 11.72
    Check yield(q/ha) : 7.34
    INM 81 22.50 Demo yield(q/ha) : 12.17
    Check yield(q/ha) : 8.05
    Sunflower Varietal 60 35.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 14.82
    Check yield(q/ha) : 7.23
    INM 46 30.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 16.93
    Check yield(q/ha) : 12.13
    Ground Nut Varietal 08 5.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 14.63
    Check yield(q/ha) : 11.30
    INM 28 10.00 Demo yield(q/ha) : 15.80
    Check yield(q/ha) : 12.50

    Front Line Block Demonstration (Cereal and Vegetable Crops).

    The performance of crop production and vegetable crops conducted during the period of 1990-91 to 2014-15 are given as under :

    Performance of Cereals Crops

    Crop Thematic Area No. of Farmers Area (ha) Average Production Av. % Increase
    Wheat Varietal 69 21.50 Demo yield(q/ha) : 34.52
    Check yield(q/ha) : 23.46
    INM 216 47.75 Demo yield(q/ha) : 46.59
    Check yield(q/ha) : 36.38
    ICM 184 46.65 Demo yield(q/ha) : 49.23
    Check yield(q/ha) : 39.16
    Paddy Varietal 94 23.5 Demo yield(q/ha) : 44.90
    Check yield(q/ha) : 29.67
    IPM 102 34.45 Demo yield(q/ha) : 45.79
    Check yield(q/ha) : 35.78
    Maize INM 05 1.55 Demo yield(q/ha) : 22.5
    Check yield(q/ha) : 14.00

    Performance of Vegetable Crops

    Crop Thematic Area No. of Farmers Area (ha) Average Production Av. % Increase
    Chilli IDM 6 0.20 Demo yield(q/ha) : 79.5
    Check yield(q/ha) : 56.00
    IPM 6 0.60 Demo yield(q/ha) : 226.5
    Check yield(q/ha) : 135.00
    ICM 45 1.33 Demo yield(q/ha) : 179.20
    Check yield(q/ha) : 142.70
    Brinjal IDM 6 0.30 Demo yield(q/ha) : 215.00
    Check yield(q/ha) : 151.40
    IPM 6 0.60 Demo yield(q/ha) : 314.50
    Check yield(q/ha) : 201.50
    ICM 15 1.33 Demo yield(q/ha) : 373.71
    Check yield(q/ha) : 286.50
    Tomato IDM 6 0.30 Demo yield(q/ha) : 270.00
    Check yield(q/ha) : 195.15
    IPM 6 0.60 Demo yield(q/ha) : 320.15
    Check yield(q/ha) : 231.50
    ICM 12 3.68 Demo yield(q/ha) : 337.58
    Check yield(q/ha) : 270.01
    Veg. Pea ICM 7 0.625 Demo yield(q/ha) : 100.55
    Check yield(q/ha) : 64.85
    IDM 2 0.56 Demo yield(q/ha) : 102.17
    Check yield(q/ha) : 66.10
    Onion INM 4 0.20 Demo yield(q/ha) : 250.5
    Check yield(q/ha) : 212.0
    Cauliflower ICM 8 0.80 Demo yield(q/ha) : 320.0
    Check yield(q/ha) : 222.0
    Cabbage ICM 8 0.80 Demo yield(q/ha) : 322.0
    Check yield(q/ha) : 216.0